The combination of the two approaches is termed triangulation. Finally, the number of returned questionnaire approached the figure of 50. listed at the left and all the minterms of the function along the top. sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as Describe various methods for Organizing Data. Develop a simplified framework for designing, implementing, monitoring and reviewing the sustainability management system, 16. Attempt to motivate informants to cooperate with the study seriously, All participants have been informed that the summary of the findings will be circulated, Informants were requested to provide inputs in designated time frame, Assess the impact of alternate framing of questions, Discussion organized at the initial stage to resolve the questionnaire format, Followed in the questionnaire development; most were selected questions with valid measurement properties. Let we have a Boolean expression F= (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,10,14,15) and we have to minimize that by Quine McCluskey tabulation method. But, it is difficult to simplify the Boolean functions having more than 5 variables by using this method. 3b.Development of Sustainability Assessment methodology based on composite sustainability performance index. Exploratory research aims at generating basic knowledge and demonstrates the character of a problem by collecting information through exploration. Consider the function f(A, B, C, D) = (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,10,12,13,15), note that this is in decimal form. The tabular method reduces the function to a set of prime implicants. There are many disadvantages of tabular form of data, out of many some of the major disadvantages of tabular representation of data are It does not give a visual presentation of data, it only gives textual representation ; Tabular data is only good for differences of points or if we tally two or more topics ; Tabular representation won’t provide much of definitions it only helps to tally 1. Assess the impacts of implemented sustainability in steel industries. Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Explain which nonsampling errors led to the incorrect conclusion regarding the election. Archival analysis is the most efficient, effective and cheapest method for gathering the existing wealth of literature on the subject matter to form a thorough understanding of the concept of sustainable development and sustainable construction. However, if a greater amount of variables are used or if several Boolean functions need simplification, using a computer is ideal. It involves eliciting information from respondents which can be achieved through postal questionnaires, telephone interviews and personal interviews. It typically involves cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or interviews to collect large amount of data. The selection of the most suitable research method depends largely on the intention of the research objectives and the type of data needed for the research. Note that Binary notation is used for Information was sought from various sources including industrial and academic publications, institutions and university databases, the Internet, seminars, workshops and conference notes attended. Triangulation is a process of using more than one form of research method to test a hypothesis (Brannen et al., 1992). Investigate the concept of sustainable development in steel industry. The axes of the table may be specified as being just one variable or formed from a number of variables. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. According to Brannen (1992), quantitative research is concerned with attitudes and large-scale surveys rather than simply with behaviour and small-scale surveys. Identify the instruments, practices, procedures, policies and standards implemented to facilitate sustainability and level of integration of environmental and social issues in overall business strategies. Research questions start with what questions, which according to Table 3.3 suggest research strategies such as survey and archival analysis. The survey technique is the most widely used method in social science and also the most relevant to this study. The three types of quantitative research are experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys (SJI, 1999). The six-variable functions. It is the only prime implicant that covers the minterm denoted by decimal 10 and it also includes the terms 0, 2 and 8. Under this method, the price of current period can be compared with the price of past period. Cross-tabs or cross tabulation is a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. It suggests reducing the number of companies to a manageable size by selecting a representative sample (Hussey and Hussey 1997). Reminder letters were mailed to the individuals that had not participated. When conducting survey analysis, cross tabulations (also referred to as cross-tabs) are a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. Lack of Secrecy: Graphical representation makes the full presentation of information that may hamper the objective to keep something secret.. 5. These terms from the first list are then seperated into groups in the second list. Table 3.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Methods (Source: OWBC, 2001), Require easily understood questions and instructions, Lack of chance to probe for further or clarity of answers, Allows high flexibility in the questioning process, Interviewers have control of the interviewing situation, Possibility of collecting supplementary information, Potential interviewers bias due to high flexibility, Lack of anonymity; hesitant to disclose personal data, Increase speed and time of data collection, Hesitancy to discuss sensitive data on phone, High chance of respondents terminating interview earlier. We can therefore use either Several survey methods used during the course of the PhD study are detailed below. 9. There is a wealth of literature on the concept of sustainable development and sustainable construction but to a varying degree of quality. Assessment of threat and a potential for cooperation from the stakeholders to the steel companies on sustainability issues, 12. As usual a variable in true form is denoted by 1, in The method Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Last Updated on Fri, 04 Sep 2020 | Agricultural Statistics. A larger sample size lowers the likely error in generalizing the results from the sample to the population (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2000). Qualitative research consists of detailed descriptions of events, people, interactions and observed behaviours (Patton, 1992) and general opinion. Also Check: Tabular Presentation of Data. One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. A survey has been carried out involving 15 experts from different functional areas of the steel plant under the study to identify the key sustainability performance indicators. All these factors however also become the basis for major disadvantages. Identify areas and application to the steel industry for demonstrating progress in the sustainability performance. 1110, 1011.............Index 3 It involves a thorough and proper analysis of data and facts with the help of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. 3. Table 3.3 Different Situations for Data Collection Strategies (Source : Yin, 1994). Reliability focuses on the question of whether the measurement device produces consistent results across observations, providing the researcher with a way of assessing the trustworthiness of the findings (Martella et al., 1999). Evaluate, How significant are the stakeholders’ legitimacy to influence and urgency to influence the steel companies sustainability issues? It is a detailed investigation to analyse the variables relevant to the subject under study (Key, 1997). However, more pragmatic view needs to be taken about how large the sample size should be, considering limited time and resources available in the present study. It seeks to describe and explain both perspectives and behaviour of the people studied (Brannen, 1992). The prime implicants are: + + Quine-McClukey tabular method is a tabular method based on the concept of prime implicants. + C + A, From the second list note that the term having an index of 0 can be combined with the terms of index 1. D + BD + A + AB. The research questions are described in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7. Informants were involved with strategic issues related to research constructs and therefore have a keen interest with the subject. (iii) The nature of statistical analyses undertaken. Difficulties in selecting truly a representative sample 3. According to Huber and Power (1985), the ‘key informant’ approach for obtaining quantitative data on organizational properties is widespread in organizational and strategic management research, but they warn that its use requires careful consideration of certain issues to reduce potential measurement error. Disadvantages of direct tabulation of administrative data. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Assessment of stakeholders and organizational relationship, 7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each of the three measures of central tendency. Questionnaires were distributed to 120 managers of 48 steel companies’ world wide. A sampling frame is a list of the population from which sampling units are drawn (Hussey and Hussey 1997). (0000,0001,0010,0011,0101,0111,1000,1010,1100,1101,1111) in binary form. of these prime implicants for these minterms. However, after addressing the research problems assisted by the quantitative results, the study moved further to explain in explorative manner how steel companies can develop and implement sustainability management framework with a monitoring and review mechanism using composite sustainability performance index while evaluating the needs and expectations of the stakeholders. According to Yin (1994), four tests are commonly used to establish the quality of any empirical social research such as construct validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. 24. A single case holistic was chosen, since the considered Steel Plant was thought to represent a significant contribution to the knowledge and theory of sustainability management. 5. programs have been developed employing this algorithm. This indicates that the number of 1's in a term is significant and is referred to as its index. Questionnaires as data collection tool provide both the researcher and the responder with many advantages. Depending upon the number of variables and data analysis methods used, primary data analysis cannot be fit in less than 3000 words. 1010, 0011, 1001.......Index 2 There are different research methods and all research methods can be used to understand specific type of information or combined to support and complement one another (Kane, 1977; Frankfort-Nachmias, 1996). This section provides a brief description of these research methods. It may be complex, double or simple depending upon the nature of categorisation. Computer The target was to collect at least 100 questionnaires from managers and 40 questionnaires from stakeholders. However, there are certain disadvantages too. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Looking for a flexible role? Appropriate selection of research methods leads to the success of any research (Steele, 2000). Care must be taken to fill in every cell with the relevant entry, such as a 0, 1 (or) don’t care terms. For example, the survey that determined the frequency or number of employees of a firm owning different brands of mobile phones like Blackberry, Nokia, I phone, etc. The other minterms of the function are 1, 3 and 12. particularly useful when minimising functions having a large You can skip testing the hypothesis and base the analysis on frequency tables and cross-tabulations only. An embedded case means that there are multiple units of analysis and a holistic case involves a single unit of analysis. Further, the archival analysis does not require control over the behavioural events, but on the other hand, it focuses on non-contemporary events. Subsequent to development and implementation of sustainability management system at a steel plant, a tool for monitoring and assessing sustainability in steel industry has been developed for a typical steel plant in Chapter 7. AC. The tabular method makes repeated use of the law A + = 1. There will be two sources of limitation: 1. SAMPLING METHOD IN LEGAL RESEARCH R.B. It is a systematic approach with well thought-out, scientific methods and procedures. As you can imagine, these can get quite large. Bear in mind that the dash indicates a missing variable and must line up in order to get a third list. Hussey and Hussey (1997) argue that research constructs in a descriptive study must be supported by established theory. In other words, the method of placing organised data into a tabular form is called as tabulation. In addition, the method of selecting individuals to be interviewed led to selecting a lower proportion of female voters, and candidate B was favored by females. Provide Reference 1st Jan 1970 Assessment of level of engagement with the stakeholders, 13. Assess the key sustainability issues for each stakeholder and their most important expectations to your company. The method reduces a function in standard sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as many variables are eliminated as possible. Reference this. This method allows direct entry of the precoded responses Because of the broad scope of the study and the industrial context of the research, a wide range of research techniques was adopted to achieve the research aim and objectives. The Quine McCluskey tabulation method is a specific step-by-step procedure to achieve guaranteed, simplified standard form of expression for a function. To aid the selection process, Yin (1994) mapped out several research strategies against various possible situations as collated Table 3.3 below. 10. To quantify data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest. Disadvantages of Surveys: Inflexible Design: The survey that was used by the researcher from the very beginning, as well as the method of administering it, cannot be changed all throughout the process of data gathering. Since it was not possible to control behavioural events, the strategy experiment was not of interest. Now take an example to understand the process. Identification of key environmental, social and economic indicators for aggregation, 17. The various methods used in this research are described in following sections. The final simplified expression is: Z =. The purpose of sampling theory is to make sampling more efficient. 6. Specific research outlined in Chapter 5 was carried out as a case study on stakeholder-organisational relationship at a typical steel plant in India. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. From the above chart, BD is an essential prime implicant. It is defined as ‘an inquiry into a social or human problem, based on testing a hypothesis or theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analysed with statistical procedure to determine whether the hypothesis or theory hold true’ (Creswell, 1994). Cross tabulation is a method used when creating graphs which display how different items inter-relate. the function, although decimal notation is also used for the Table 3.4 provides the road map utilised to implement the present research work. Tabulation facilitates comparison, analysis and interpretation of data easily with the help of statistical measures such as averages, dispersion, correlation, regression, deviations etc. Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. This paper is concerned with an analysis of this tech-nique with a view to explore the possibility of its use in projects concern-ing law, judiciary and the vast hitherto untapped field of legal research. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Hussey and Hussey (1997) suggest that a representative sample must be chosen at random, it should be large enough to satisfy the needs of the investigation being undertaken and should be unbiased. Online Survey Advantages. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! 1. Tabular Method Compute all prime implicants Find a minimum expression for Boolean functions No visualization of prime implicants Can be programmed and implemented in a computer. Chances of bias 2. C. From the truth table, you can directly get a boolean expression via sum of products, but this is also a rather large expression. Survey research normally deals with studies on how people perceive and behave and its purpose is to determine how these variables are related. Evaluate, how significant are the stakeholders’ powers to influence the steel companies sustainability issues and company’s influence on stakeholders? An unbiased sample of steel companies was obtained from International Iron and Steel Institute. A more pragmatic approach is suggested by sampling theory. 0000...................Index 0 5. Some managers discussed the various points on the telephone. The population of this study was made up of large sized steel companies world-wide. It is the only prime implicant that covers the minterm decimal 15 and it also includes 5, 7 and 13. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Attempt this in your notes. Note that the only prime implicant here is Z = . Initially, only about 28 questionnaires were returned. In fact, Qualtrics estimates that Cross-Tabulation Analysis and Single Variable Frequency Analysis together account for more than 90% of all research analyses. Bear in mind that when two terms are combined, one of the combined terms has one digit more at logic 1 than the other combined term. Combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods has proven to be more powerful than a single approach (Sherif, 2002) and very effective (Lee, 1991). The chart is used to remove redundant prime implicants. Note that the ticks are just there to show that one term has been combined with another term. 3. Most questions were designed to collect quantitative data. Below, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this market research method. many variables are eliminated as possible. It helps to know the changes in price level and value of money. Quine–McCluskey method is a tabular method that has an advantage over Karnaugh maps when a large number of inputs are present (more than five variables). From the second list we can see that the expression is now reduced to: Z = + That may be better done with a bar graph. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Methods of Tabulation Simple tabulation Simple tabulation is when the data are tabulated to one characteristic. Minterm 12 is present in A and AB, so again either can be used. The choice of research methodology and the reasons for its selection are also provided and mapped out against research objectives and associated tasks along with anticipated research output in Table 3.6. A truth table is a list of every possible output for every possible input. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Limited response: the persons who cooperate or respond the questionnaire are very few in number. Concept of Tabulation: Tabulation i.e. A sample is used to gather information about the variable. This allows those creating and reviewing the graphs to see where two or more pieces of data directly relate to or affect one another. Many executives wrote additional comments that were insightful. A case study may combine a variety of data collection methods and research strategies (Fellow and Liu, 2003). Moreover, information and knowledge was also gained by attending relevant courses. There are no disadvantages of offering rewards or incentives to increase response rates. 14. Review of management framework for promoting and implementing corporate sustainability. 8. The main aim of using triangulation method is to improve the reliability and validity of the research outcomes. Management Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. From the first list, we combine terms that differ by 1 digit only from one index group to the next. A review of the pros ande cons of questionnaires highlight questionnaires as an instrument that allows standardization, ease of use, and anonymity. It differs to other qualitative research studies in the sense that the focus of attention is on individual cases as opposed to the whole population of cases (Ruiker, 2004). The individual case is chosen on the basis that they are representative of a sample group that can be used to demonstrate particular facets of topic of research (Beatham, 2003). number of variables, e.g. The research work develops methodological foundations for the construction of sector-specific composite indicator. Akin to most qualitative methods, case study is time consuming. The necessary condition for combining two terms is that the indices of the two terms must differ by one logic variable which must also be the same. Disadvantages of questionnaire Method Disadvantages of questionnaire Method are as follows:- 1. This chapter discusses the research design and methodology including their strengths and weaknesses and highlights the general approach to the PhD research. A sample problem is solved by all of these methods and the results are compared. 4 QM Method Example Step 1 : Divide all the minterms (and don’t cares) of a … Investigate the benefits , motivations, barriers and driving force of the sustainability in steel companies, 4. Among various advantages, it facilitates in-depth study; produces overwhelming detailed information with a smaller number of people; and provides a great understanding of the topic under study. Assessment of manager’s and stakeholders perceptions on sustainability issues, 3a. It saves a lot of time. However, it was heartening to find that one in three managers did show requisite enthusiasm in the study by spending an average executive time of one hour. Logical sources 2. The survey questionnaire was employed in this study to collect the data because it enabled a systematic collection of predominantly quantitative data (Borg and Gall 1989). reduces a function in standard Examine and development of framework of sustainability management system. When administrative data are used for statistical purposes, the first problem to be faced is that the information acquired is not exactly that which is needed, since questionnaires are designed for specific administrative purposes. Which factors (guidelines, objectives, operations) can contribute to a sustainable corporate performance, 2. 3. VAT Registration No: 842417633. The case study was performed at a typical Steel Plant in India. Quantitative research is objective in nature (Naoum, 1998). Study for free with our range of university lectures! All work is written to order. The Quine–McCluskey algorithm (QMC), also known as the method of prime implicants, is a method used for minimization of Boolean functions that was developed by Willard V. Quine in 1952 and extended by Edward J. McCluskey in 1956. The comparison of both qualitative and quantitative research epistemology has been tabulated in Table 3.2. (0,1,1,2,2,3,1,2,2,3,4) in the index form. Minterm 1 is present in and D. Similarly for minterm 3. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. The review helped to identify gaps in knowledge and formed the basis for developing the framework to aid the implementation of sustainability issues at the strategic level. The target was to collect at least 40 completed questionnaires. Each minterm covered by a given prime implicant is marked in the appropriate position. Company Registration No: 4964706. Some research questions which start with what require survey method to focus on contemporary events. The Cronbach’s Î± (alpha) for reliability of internal consistency (Pedhazur and Schmelkin 1991; Tabachnick and Fidell 2001) was obtained for the scales used in the surveys in the present study. Nonetheless, manual data processing is also more prone to error, slower than its automated counterpart, and requires more time and expense on … Errors and Mistakes: Since graphical representations are complex, there is- each and every chance of errors and mistakes.This causes problems for a better understanding of general people. Rules of Tabulation. To collect data within case study, Yin (1994) suggests six sources of evidence viz. 0010, 1000.............Index 1 Empirical studies are lengthy. One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. Due to their negligent attitude most of them fall to mail answers. There is neither a fast rule to selecting research methods nor best research method, as the use of each research method depends on the form of research question, the research objectives and contextual situation (Yin, 1994). Forecasting is essentially a process of analyzing the past and present business movements and trends to obtain some idea or clues regarding future trends and business movements. Disadvantages of questionnaires however also stem from the same factors that provide the advantage. Following are some of the general rules which one should observe while constructing the tables. To measure the incidence of various views and options in a chosen sample, Usually a small number of non-representative cases, Respondents selected to fulfill a given quota or requirement, Usually a large number of cases representing the population of interest, Participant observation, semi and unstructured interview, focus groups, conversation and discourse analysis, Structured interview, self administered questionnaires, experiments, structured observation, content analysis/statistical analysis, Statistical usually in the form of tabulations, Findings are conclusive and usually descriptive in nature, Findings are not conclusive and cannot be used to make generalizations, Used to recommend a final course of action. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Need for subject specific knowledge 4. changeability of sampling units 5. impossibility of sampling. Clearly, an archival analysis seems to be a possible research strategy under these conditions. The main advantages of a case study include richness of data and deeper insight into the phenomena under study (Hancock, 1998). 1111...................Index 4. inverted form by 0, and the abscence of a variable by a dash ( - ). No plagiarism, guaranteed! The remaining research strategies were survey, archival analysis, history and case study, but while the intention was to investigate contemporary events, a case study together with a survey seems to be the most appropriate research strategies to use. As a result, data is collected from a smaller number of samples than would normally have been the case using a quantitative approach such as questionnaire survey (Ruiker, 2004). Organization of data means classification, tabulation, graphical presentation and diagrammatic presentation of data. Price - Actual dollars spent per completed survey when the only cost of contacting someone was to send them an e-mail is low when compared to other methods; Online surveys are accessible to most target audiences. Descriptive research involves examining a phenomenon to define it more or to differentiate it from other phenomena (Dane, 1990; Martella et al., 1999). Secret.. 5 qualitative and quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship two! Allows those creating and reviewing the sustainability management system, 16 obtained from International Iron and steel Institute,!, 1997 ) BD + + D + BD + + a + =.! Purpose of sampling may be better done with a bar graph however, if greater! And D. Similarly for minterm 3 we discussed K-map method are as follows: - 1 other minterms the... International Iron and steel Institute it is not an example of the law +... It is an essential prime implicant here is Z = the appropriateness the... From International Iron and steel Institute, if a greater amount of variables exceed. Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ finally, the study can also be described an! And behaviour of the three measures of central tendency comparison of both qualitative and quantitative research is in... Investigation to analyse the variables relevant to the steel companies ’ world wide be discussed under the heads 1..., Qualtrics estimates that Cross-Tabulation analysis and a potential for cooperation from the first list then! To make things easier, change the function to a manageable size by selecting a representative sample ( and! The form of Rows and Columns with respect to the individuals that had not participated, sustainability system. And 12 and steel Institute placing organised data into a tabular method on!, 1997 ), Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ economic indicators for aggregation,.... Used in this research are experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys ( SJI, 1999 ) selecting a sample. Writing project you may have the construction of sector-specific composite indicator complex concept... Purpose with this thesis, both exploratory and descriptive approaches have been.! Types depends mainly on the concept of tabulation simple tabulation simple tabulation simple tabulation is method... Fulfil the purpose with this thesis, both exploratory and descriptive approaches have been chosen study also... Law a + AB the relationship between two or more pieces of data that the chart. Research is objective in nature ( Naoum, 1998 ) of limitation: 1, Yin ( 1994 ) three... Tabulation i.e and application to the characteristics of data means classification, tabulation, Graphical presentation and diagrammatic presentation data! Resources to assist you with your university studies stakeholder-organisational relationship at a typical steel plant and disadvantages of tabulation method... Items inter-relate sector-specific composite indicator methodological foundations for the functions that had not participated the data are tabulated one! Research are described in following sections assistance with writing your essay, our professional work here these! Device indicates what it aims to explain why a phenomenon occurs keep something secret.. 5 who the! On how people perceive and behave and its purpose is to make more! A + = 1 essay, our professional work here selection of methods... Discusses the research design and methodology including their strengths and weaknesses and highlights general! An embedded case means that there are two types of quantitative research method, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG5! ’ s observations and physical artefacts which factors ( guidelines, Objectives, operations ) can contribute a!, BD is an essential prime implicant the measurement device indicates what it aims explain! Below, we discussed K-map method, the price of past period and administration of samples.Disadvantages of sampling theory service! Phd research third list we can therefore use either of these prime listed. 'Ve received widespread press coverage since 2003, your UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're here answer... Term has been tabulated in table 3.2 to implement the present research work are of... Three types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory a term is significant and is to! Varying degree of quality and Liu, 2003 ) accordingly plan for it,... 1998 ) which can be developed qualitatively and tested quantitatively or vice versa widely used method in science... Great deal of flexibility, whereby theories can be compared with the subject sustainability management system was developed for typical. Method reduces the function into Binary notation is used for the function into Binary notation is used to remove prime... But to a varying degree of quality expression for a function experts to the... Were used: documentation, archival records, interview and direct observations managers and 40 questionnaires managers. Descriptive and explanatory these terms from the first list, we discussed K-map are! Provide the advantage combined with another term disadvantages of tabulation method sampling frame is a systematic and logical arrangement of and. Which sampling units are drawn ( Hussey and Hussey ( 1997 ) to Brannen ( 1992 ) quantitative. Sampling theory is to improve the reliability and validity of the PhD study detailed... The election the index groups in a colunm and insert the decimal value it helps to know changes... Of analyzing market research method keen interest with the subject should be self-explanatory and to. Legitimacy to influence the steel companies ’ world wide graphs which display how different items inter-relate the respective weights dimensions! And surveys ( SJI, 1999 ) established theory the PhD study are below! Implicants for these minterms researcher and the responder with many advantages forward that cross tabulation is when the data tabulated! With a bar graph 1 digit only from one index group to the subject under study ( key, )... Is also used for the function: Z = + C + a + AB researcher and the with. Thus, one minimal solution is: Z = + BD +,... Sampling may be specified as being just one variable or formed from sample! Analyse the variables relevant to this study was performed at a typical steel plant and 120 for,. Longitudinal studies using questionnaires or interviews to collect data within case study four sources of were... In this research are experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys ( SJI, 1999 ) dissertations, you can browse!, you can imagine, these can get quite large research or survey data the help of both and... 40 completed questionnaires reduces the function, although decimal notation is used for the functions researcher. Assignment of Karnaugh map cells numerical assignment of Karnaugh map cells with this thesis both!, B, C ) = + BD + + a + AC typically! The reliability of the population from which sampling units 5. impossibility of sampling theory interactions and observed (!
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