This has led to the government’s resolve to augment fish supply with importation of frozen fish and other fish products. Nigeria’s total annual fish demand is estimated at 2.7 million metric tonnes (mmt). Nigeria is blessed with enough marine fisheries resources that could enhance increased fish production. Form B of Schedule I prescribes the form of license to operate or navigate a motor fishing boat, while Schedule II contains the fees for licenses. This development as described by experts could not ensure the sustainable supply of fish. The total marine fisheries production also increased to 105.8 million tons in 2011, but its contribution to total world fisheries production was only 68.0%. According to Olaoye et al. ), various soles, catfish (Arius spp. This is classified broadly into brackish water, fresh water, and seawater/marine water fisheries. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The fishermen target small pelagic, Sardinella spp. By Mohammad Serajuddin, Farah Bano, Madhu Awasthi, Pragya Gupta and Graish Kumar, By Alberto Sánchez and José D. Carriquiry. These contain six regulations and two schedules on the licensing of motor fishing boats. Total fish production per year is close to 1 million metric tons (313,231 metric tons from aquaculture and 759,828 metric tons from fisheries). Capacity building in project management . Through the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) we are assisting the government of Nigeria and others in the ECOWAS block to integrate fish in their national trade strategies; promote cross-border trade on some selected One-Stop-Border-Posts (OSBPs); and promote participation of women in cross-border trade. Fish farming consists of two major subdivisions, which could either be operated separately or as an integrated process. The Sea Fisheries Act is an act to make provisions for the control, regulation, and protection of sea fisheries in the territorial waters of Nigeria . 1.1 Global Fish Production Overall total production of fish from capture and aquaculture fisheries in Nigeria is about 800,000 metric tons (hereafter MTs) in 2010 from the data of FAO Fishery Statistic as shown in Fig. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing livestock production sector in Nigeria and worldwide . It is recommended that the aquaculture of marine fishes should be intensified. Tuna is mainly found in the off-shore tuna fishery and forms part of the large Gulf of Guinea stocks. The majority of coastal states, especially developing states, cannot afford the sophisticated patrol vessels or satellite vessel monitoring systems (VMS) required for monitoring and surveillance of the vast and turbulent waters of the EEZ with less risk. Nigeria is blessed with a land area of 923,768 km2, an 853 km coastline, and a 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone (EEZ). We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. In buttressing their point,  noted that artisanal fisheries employ 18 times more fishermen than the industrial fisheries while supporting the welfare of over 100 million persons globally. Those Nigerian companies have fleet sizes of less than four while larger companies, with fleet sizes of four or more are owned in partnership with foreign investors . The consumption of small fish by large predator fish, mammals, and seabirds also constitutes a serious threat to certain fish species [56, 57]. The lack of data is also particular to marine fisheries production in Nigeria. It was the outcome of artisanal fishers’ complaints that industrial fishing trawlers were destroying their fishing nets . Although capture fisheries has now been declining, Nigeria has a big potential in both marine and fresh water fisheries including aquaculture. Fish farming means ‘raising fish commercially in tanks, ponds or other enclosures for the purpose of producing food’. The above problems are further compounded by the lack of relevant data and information on fishing vessels, catch landings, and fish stock biomass, especially in developing countries including Nigeria. Artisanal fishery refers to the harvesting or capturing of fishes from natural water bodies such as rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds by small scale fisher folks using both traditional and modern fishing gears . Marine Fisheries in Nigeria: A Review, Marine Ecology - Biotic and Abiotic Interactions, Muhammet Türkoğlu, Umur Önal and Ali Ismen, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75032. The marine resources in these waters include demersal, pelagic, and shellfish resources, mainly shrimps, prawns, and crabs, that exist in commercial quantities. Fishery resources in the inshore shrimp industry include the following in order of importance: White prawn (Penaeus notialis) (Pérez Farfante, 1967), Brown or Guinea shrimp (Holthuispenaeopsis atlantica) (Balss, 1914), Rose or red deep-water shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846), Stripped or tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (Fabricius, 1978), Palaemonidae‑Estuarine prawn from Decapoda (Nematopalaemon hastatus) (Aurivillius, 1898). Based on the above definitions, fish farming that involves the rearing of fish species under human controlled environments for the economic and social benefits of mankind is a subset of aquaculture . Around 94 million hectares is used for fishery production, according to the FAO, and 1,477,651 people work as fishers. Application form for a license or renewal of a license to operate or to navigate a motor fishing boat within the territorial waters of Nigeria and the particulars that must be stated in such application as contained in Form A of Schedule I are prescribed in these regulations . Lastly, the low-lying nature of the Nigerian coast makes it susceptible to storm surges, coastal erosion, and inundation of the coastal mangrove and wetlands, which destroy rare and fragile habitats for marine fish breeding and nursery . Fabrication of fish handling equipment . About 180 metric tons of extruded floating fish feed is produced monthly representing about 2200 metric tons per year. The act has 14 sections with Section 1 being on licensing of motor fishing boats; application for a license, grounds for issue of a license, and renewal of a license were detailed in Sections 2–4. The 1995 Sea Fisheries Regulations originated from the Sea Fisheries Decree No 71 of 1992 and contains in addition to the provisions of the Sea Fisheries Decree 1992 Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance as the main text concerning the control of fishery products .  on analysis of major food imports obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics, fish was the second major food commodities with highest import bills in the period 2006–2010 with an annual average of ₦113.63 billion. To obtain financing for fish production in Nigeria, a business plan is normally required. No shrimp trawling is permitted in the inshore water of the Lagos-West fishing grounds. In spite of this high potential, domestic fish production still falls far below the total demand, which was estimated at 2.2 million metric tons per year in 2008. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FISH PRODUCTION . How? This involves building the earthen, tarpaulin or concrete pond, fertilizing the pond, stocking the fingerlings in quality water and feeding the Mackerel, Tilapia or catfish till market size. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The contribution of the Nigerian aquaculture production has been increasing since 1995 with the contribution of 0.07% to world aquaculture production and 0.42% of world aquaculture production in 2014 . Section 1 of the decree provided that only dully registered and licensed motor fishing boats and reefer vessels are allowed to be navigated within the territorial waters of the country . It was further submitted that fish farming provides important services such as supporting nutritional well-being, source of feedstock for industries, contributing to rural development, increasing export opportunities, and enhancing more effective administration of natural resources and conservation of biological diversity [36, 37]. According to FAO , ghost fishing is caused by abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear. Dumping of toxic waste in the sea and emptying of ballast water from ships into the sea are other human activities polluting the aquatic environment. The fishermen in this group operate dug-out or improved canoes and target demersal species such as croakers, catfish, and shiny nose, and shrimp (Penaeids) in the estuaries. Nigeria’s internal fish production is not enough to meet its 2.7 million tons demand annually, with a current deficit of 1.9million metric tons recorded. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. According to Agbo , Nigeria spent over ₦125 billion per annum on importation of 1.90 million metric ton of fish in 2015. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Available from: Sediment Transport in Aquatic Environments, Status of marine fisheries production in Nigeria, Constraints to optimal marine fisheries production in Nigeria, Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria. A number of constraints face the optimal production of marine fish from both the fishing and aquaculture fisheries. Built by scientists, for scientists. 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