literature review on african star apple

Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues. The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models. The spectral analysis as displayed in Figure 1 shows the various peaks of the functional groups present in the oil. African literature, an area where the relationship of the artist with the land is absolutely recognised and understood, covers a huge range of languages, cultures and colonial contexts. The overall performance of the three shells shows that ZnCl2 performed slightly better than MgCl2 in reducing the concentration of Methyl orange in the solution. Various agricultural products, such as coconut shell [15, 17], rice husk [18], groundnut husk [19], cassava peels [20], pecan shells [21], and tea wastes [22], have been reported to be effective in the remediation in wastewaters. The iodine value of the extracted oil was measured and found to be 72.8 mg/KOH/g. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Development and evaluation of African star apple (, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (PubChem CID: 237332), 2,5-Furandione, dihydro-3-methylene (PubChem CID: 75110), 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihyro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (PubChem CID: 119838). 50ml of the solution is collected after an hour and filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the concentration of methyl orange in the filtrate measured using Shimadzu T70 UV-Vis spectrometer. Although the cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the profitability of the business is without a doubt. Possible bioactives were investigated using Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry. Adsorptive studies of the fruit shell for the removal of dye were also performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. ZnCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the dye. An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… Pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Published online: 13 May 2020. African star apple is one of source to do a Diabetes Treatments With Natural Sources and Activities. Percentage reduction of dyes with time (hrs). Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of Cadmium in wastewater (kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies) was also investigated by [24] and was observed to be a potential sequester of Cadmium in wastewater. The fruit also contains good amounts of vitamins A and C (higher, in fact than levels … We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. ( Steve Wozniak . Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. This could be an advantage as oil with high free fatty acids developing off-flavor during storage [36]. The extract seeped through the pores of the thimble and filled a syphon tube and this was allowed to continue for 6 hours. Innovative spirit of Apple Inc. has been approved across the world. Literature Review. Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. More extensive information about the journal is available here. African star apple is a tropical edible fruit that is widely consumed among Nigerians. Their results showed that the oil yield was of 21.57% and acid values were of 2.87. The oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds (Chrysophyllum albidum) with hexane using the soxhlet apparatus was physically and chemically analyzed and gave the following results as presented in Table 1. Once again, the cotyledons contained in the african star apple seeds have an anti-hyperglycemia effect that has an effect on the decrease in high … The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. ASA were washed, de-pulped, oven-dried (65 °C, 18 h) and milled (≤180 µm). After the first two hours, the rate of reduction of the dye decreases until equilibrium was reached after 5 hours of contact time for all the three seed shells with different activation. The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Extracted. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. Billboards and banners featured huge black-and-white portraits of performers, artists, scientists, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became mainstream. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. A. Ashaye, and M. O. Oladapo, “Biodetermination of the african star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value,”, S. S. Ochigbo and Y. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. This indicates that the seed may not be a good source of abundant oil. African star apple contains eleagnine that works against microbes. Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! Description: As the official publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, the quarterly journal African American Review promotes a lively exchange among writers and scholars in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who hold diverse perspectives on African American literature and culture. The free fatty acid of the extracted oil was 3.16 mg/KOH/g as compared to 2.25 mg/KOH/g by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and 9.90 mg/KOH/g by [31]. Fresh ripped fruits of African Star Apple were bought from some local market sellers at the University of Cape Coast Science market which is located in the Southern part of Ghana. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. FS had predominantly 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (0.58 mg/kg) with high free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, 86.23%). There are several fruits in Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance. African star apple fruit pulp‐supplemented diet modulates fertility‐related biomolecules in the testis and epididymis of high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. Supplement significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde). Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. The acid value was also found to be 7.72 mg/KOH/g. It is published twice annually, once in spring and once in fall. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. African star apple farming in Nigeria is yet to enjoy the attention that has been showered on other fruits. December 2014 . ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29°C for 7 days and then mechanically cracked using a nut cracker for the seed to be taken out. Adsorption tests were carried out in 2L Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. Literature in the African continent has its basis mainly in the traditions of South African, Francophone and Anglophone literatures. . The Apple Valley Review is an online literary journal. This was then filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours. It was further air-dried for 7 days and then oven-dried in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55) at 105°C for 8 hours to reduce the moisture content. It shows the initial concentrations of the dye (Methyl orange) as well as the adsorbent (Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell) which was activated with three different chemicals (CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2). This property makes the leaves/fruits useful medically, for the treatment of type two diabetes though … The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponification value of 200.56 mg KOH/g, and an iodine value of 70.64 g/100g. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. Hence, the amount of solute sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (qe) and the first-order rate constant (k1) can be evaluated from the slope and intercept. Frequencies ranging between 3008.01cm−1 and 2853cm−1 with transmittances of 92.69 (%T) and 62.1(%T), respectively as shown in Table 2 showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching of C-H representing alkanes just as Corn and Mustard oils which showed 2854.7 – 2925.8 cm−1 as C-H asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of the aliphatic CH2 [38]. Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural was the dominant Bioactive observed. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. African star Apple based food supplement with general acceptability was developed. Mean Sensory (taste) scores for food supplemented with FS (5.5 ± 1.17) compared favourably with the unsupplemented (6.2 ± 1.03). Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil of this study are included within the article. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by( Steve Jobs . It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. 1 Information 2 Appearance 3 History 3.1 The Ukumbusho Tradition 3.2 Timon and Pumbaa's Christmas 3.3 The Scorpion's Sting 3.4 Little Old Ginterbong African tar apples are used as a food source, as well as to create paint with. The most widely used adsorbent is activated carbon [16]. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of natural antioxidants, containing many different antioxidant components which provide protection against harmful free radicals which have been implicated in the aetiology of several human ailments such as cancer, neural disorders, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular disorder [6–8]. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Apple’s 1997 “Think Different” marketing campaign was one of its most memorable ever. In good oil, the acid value should be very low (< 0.1) and an increase in acid value is an indicator of oxidation of the oil which may lead to gum and sludge formation beside corrosion. About this review . The oil yield of 11.6% was low as compared to oil from palm kernel oil (45.6%) and groundnut oil (35.76%) [41] The physicochemical properties of the African Star Apple seed oil indicated that it is nondrying (saponification value of 200mg/KOH/g) and can be used as a feedstock for production of soaps, lubricating oils, and lighting candles. Siphamandla Zondi. The seeds and roots extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum are used to arrest bleeding from fresh wounds and to inhibit microbial growth of known wound contaminants and also enhance the wound healing process [11]. Literature Review For Apple Inc Project. However, it may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings, varnishes, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute. Each issue features a collection of poetry, short fiction, and essays. Copyright © 2019 Michael A. Anang et al. The tree grows as a wild plant and belongs to the family of Sapotaceae which has up to 800 species and constitutes almost half of the order [1]. 1g of the activated shell was weighed and dissolved in a litre of the solution and stirred using a laboratory stirrer at 250rpm. The seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum have been used in the adsorption of lead Pb from industrial wastewater by some researchers [23] where the effects of pH, contact time, and adsorbent mass were monitored. The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. Apple have already pounced on the opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch. Names of Star Apple in various languages of the world are also given. Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution,, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. Development into an acceptable food supplement (FS) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored. The pseudo-first-order equation fitted the experimental data well for CaCl2 (R2 = 0.94) while MgCl2 (R2 = 0.97) and ZnCl2 (R2 = 0.97) fitted the pseudo-second-order equation. To remind us all of the humanity of these refugees, and perhaps shed a little light on their experience, below are a few recommendations for great works of literature either written by refugees, or about the refugee experience, or both—not, of course, an exhaustive list by … They are known by a variety of different names such as golden-leaf tree, caimito maduraverde in Spain, caimite and caimitier in France and cainito and ajara in Portugal. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. According to a report published by the African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, the leaves of the star apple tree and to some extent the flesh of the fruit itself, possess some chemical nutrients which have similar properties to insulin found in the body, and believed to effectively reduce blood sugar levels. (Chairman, 1976-1985, 2011; CEO, 1997–2011)( Current :Tim Cook. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch (pulp:starch, 7:3) followed, yielding the FS. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. Former : Steve Jobs. ‎THE SENSATIONAL ADVENTURE FROM THE #1 BESTSELLING AUTHOR ‘Deadly conspiracies, bone-crunching action and a tormented hero with a heart . The refractive index indicates the level of optical clarity of the crude oil sample relative to water. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. It has a specific gravity of 0.92 at 30°C which is different from that of Adebayor, Orhevba [27] who had 0.89 at 25°C, 0.8269 at 25°C for [31]. Z. Abidin, R. Yunus, and A. Muhammad, “Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics,”, T. O. K. Ando, E. O. Aluyor, S. Egualeona, and S. S. Momoh, “Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum and Luffa cylindrica seed oils,”, Emmanuel S. A., O. This could be attributed to the active vacant sites within the activated shells as reported by [40]. Pages: 119-132. African Star Apples are a type of fruit that grow in the Pride Lands. Rising intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity. The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. Ripe African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart in taste. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Researchers suggest that the African star apple fruit also known locally as ‘Alasa’ is an edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value. Gender equality and Climate Compatible Development . The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponific… Low free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. Oil from plant and animal are employed in the formulation of foods, cosmetics, and drugs in many industrial activities [5]. The refractive index of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of 1. The aim of this research paper is to extract and characterise oil from Chrysophyllum albidum fruit seed from Ghana and use the seed shell as an adsorbent in the removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solutions. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the Food supplement. The oil yield was very low with a value of 11.6% as compared to that of 12% recorded by Adebayor, Orhevba [27], 8.05% and 12.70% for [30]. At various points of the literature review, key questions will be raised linking the review aspects back to the research problem and sub-problems.

Redskins 2010 Roster, A1 Vs A2 Milk, Painful Black Face Mask, Arabic Name For Righteous, Best Hbcu In North Carolina, Efteling Woodland House, A1 Vs A2 Milk, Weather Jordan November,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Time limit is exhausted. Please reload CAPTCHA.